What's this all about?
For the last two decades “evidence-based decision-making” has been a mantra for policymakers, politicians and influential media. What is measured matters. Policy-makers, educators, parents, and the public want to know if our schools are successful; they want evidence of what is working well and where the education system is falling short.
PISA states in their Handbook on Global Competence:
“Every school should encourage its students to try and make sense of the most pressing issues defining our times. The high demands placed on schools to help their students cope and succeed in an increasingly interconnected environment can only be met if education systems define new learning objectives based on a solid framework, and use different types of assessment to reflect on the effectiveness of their initiatives and teaching practices. In this context, PISA aims to provide a comprehensive overview of education systems’ efforts to create learning environments that invite young people to understand the world beyond their immediate environment, interact with others with respect for their rights and dignity, and take action towards building sustainable and thriving communities. A fundamental goal of this work is to support evidence-based decisions on how to improve curricula, teaching, assessments and schools’ responses to cultural diversity in order to prepare young people to become global citizens.“
Traditional ways of measuring success - personally and as a nation - are often linked with economic outcomes, and social status. In a world where these may no longer hold value, we need to consider new ways of thinking about success. We need to broaden the definition of school / kura success by expanding the indicators used to measure progress towards that goal.
Many of the current local and international approaches to measuring and reporting on educational quality have tended to be limited to literacy, numeracy and science achievement. These measures are necessary but not sufficient. A growing chorus of voices is asking, “Isn’t education about more than that? Don’t we need healthy kids who can think; who are innovative and will grow up to be engaged citizens?” When there is too much emphasis on narrow goals, important priorities can be overshadowed.
The national curriculum mandates a competency-based approach. Competency-based assessment is a process where the teacher / kaiako works with the learner to collect evidence of competence, using the criteria provided in the assessment brief or in the national qualifications. It is not about passing or failing a candidate; evidence collection is more than just setting a test.
The New Zealand Curriculum defines key competencies as "capabilities for living and lifelong learning" (p.12). Using "capability" makes us focus on what students / ākonga are capable of doing and becoming, and how they use their understandings/knowledge, skills and values in particular learning contexts. This has implications for how we think about the types of learning experiences that will really stretch students as they encounter purposeful key competency/learning area combinations.
Our understanding of some common approaches to measuring success, used in New Zealand and elsewhere, are summarised in this table. In most cases these are all represented in the approaches taken to developing curriculum, but often one may be more dominant than others:
The OECD describes three types of skills; cognitive and metacognitive, physical and socio-emotional. These are specific abilities that fit in a given situation, e.g. spelling a word, using a mathematical formula, kicking a ball, reading a paragraph, relating to others etc. A finite ability that can be used under a fixed set of constraints in a narrow set of environments.
Can the particular action be repeated to an acceptable standard within the same set of constraints?
A belief that is true and justified, leading to assessment methods that rely largely on the correctness of answers. Involves engagement with facts, information, descriptions etc. often classified into various ‘domains’ or ‘subjects. Can refer to a theoretical or practical understanding.
Demonstrating engagement with and understanding of various facts, information, descriptions etc. Including transfer and application to other contexts.
- disciplinary and interdisciplinary thinking
Using knowledge, skills, competencies and values to do something in a particular context. The use of the word "capability" cues a focus on what students are capable of doing and becoming. As it applies to human capital, capability represents the intersection of capacity and ability. (Wikipedia).
Demonstrating deep-rooted ability which can be applied in many contexts.
- foundational literacy and numeracy
- critical and creative thinking
- problem solving, decision making
- wellness, having deep friendships, etc.
4. Social Action
People coming together to help improve their lives and solve the problems that are important in their communities. Requires the application of skills and capabilities within framework of shared values and moral code.
Are there long-term, sustained benefits for both individuals and wider society?
- social decision making
- citizenship qualities
- addressing societal concerns (health, climate, environment etc.)
- greater social equity, social justice
- creating public value
Most schools, regions or nations are likely to use a combination of the approaches described here; the important thing is recognising where there may be a greater emphasis, and where particular characteristics are not being addressed.
For example, an over-emphasis on skills and/or knowledge at the expense of developing capabilities and transferring that into social action is likely to produce young people who are not adequately prepared to face the challenges ahead. Conversely, a programme focused on social action projects without ensuring the development of key skills, or the ability to engage with information and knowledge, may mean students have a well developed sense of social responsibility, but lack the foundational skills and knowledge to be able to do anything about it.
But how do we measure success across all four categories? For the first two the answer is reasonably straightforward, as we have had measures for skill development and knowledge acquisition in our traditional education system for more than a century. The challenge looms when we consider how we might measure success in the third and fourth categories, where the kinds of observable, ‘testable’ measures cannot be applied in the same way, and where evidence of development may occur across longer time periods than a single academic year.
What's driving this change?
The following drivers are key to this trend:
As the nature of work is changing, so too is what it means to be a member of a society where you may no longer just work as one of the crowd, conforming and carrying out routine and repetitive tasks. Greater diversity in the workforce means individuals are more likely to exercise their individuality in the choices they make about where they live, how they live, and who they vote for. The neo-liberal agenda that has emerged as a driver of this change over the past two to three decades has benefitted many, and disadvantaged many more. The resulting rise in inequality presents a challenge to our traditional social mores, and to the notion of democracy itself. Governments are increasingly interested in measures of success relating to the notion of citizenship, together with the desire to remain competitive in an increasingly global economy.
2. Environmental/future focused
As the global population increases we face problems of a scale and consequence never previously experienced. The impact of large numbers of people on the planet, driven by a ‘consumer’ mentality, has led to significant issues such as global warming, global food shortages, shortages of fresh water and so on. As Albert Einstein is quoted as saying, “we cannot solve the complex problems we face with the same level of thinking we had when we created them.” A key driver now recognised by many nations, as well as various global agencies and organisations, is that the solution to these large-scale global problems lies mostly with the changed attitudes and behaviours of every citizen, and only in part with the actions of governments and global organisations.
The exponential rate of change impacting the future of work and how we create and distribute wealth in our society is a key driver here. The traditional view of schools as places that prepare rangatahi / young people with a fixed set of skills and knowledge in preparation for their future careers is no longer valid. Industries and organisations are increasingly looking for people who demonstrate a wide range of capabilities that will enable them to adapt, to problem solve, to communicate new ideas, and to work in teams ahead of more traditional sets of skills and knowledge.
What examples of this can I see?
The following examples are selected to provide insights into the range of ways organisations are approaching the issue of measuring success:
- The Curriculum Progress and Achievement Ministerial Advisory Group (MAG) has recently published a conversation document in which the section on building assessment, inquiry and evaluation capability (p.16) states that all stakeholders will have the assessment information and evaluative capabilities they need to do their jobs well and we will have achieved a stronger focus on student progress across the system through rich opportunities to learn.
- The Minister’s foreword in the Digital Technologies - Hangarau Matahiko addition to the Technology learning area begins with “New Zealanders are now living in a digital society. Our young people need to be confident and fully equipped to contribute and flourish in the economy of the future.” The development of this curriculum content was driven to a large extent by industry requiring more young people to be prepared with future focused skills.
- The OECD is now focusing attention on the development of capabilities. They define global competence as the capacity to examine local, global, and intercultural issues, to understand and appreciate the perspectives and worldviews of others, to engage in open, appropriate, and effective interactions with people from different cultures, and to act for collective well-being and sustainable development.
- In an open letter to the New Zealand public, 100 NZ companies including Xero, ASB, Noel Leeming, Vector, and SkyCity, have said they would be more open to hiring those without tertiary qualifications to fill vacancies.
- Triple bottom line (TBL) accounting is a practice being embraced by many companies. TBL is a concept that broadens a business' focus on the financial bottom line to include social and environmental considerations.
- An increasing number of schools are implementing strategies to involve students themselves in the process of assessing their work and providing evidence to support that - for example, Stonefields School sharing Progressions with learners.
How might we respond?
In our educational institutions we must think about how our curriculum and assessment strategies can be developed to address the range of skills and capabilities required for the future.
- In order to fully understand what needs to change in our system, and where we could focus our effort we should consider the following questions:
- What is happening in your context? What have the vision and values of your school been until now?
- Have you provided opportunities for your students to “be” this vision?
- How have your assessment practices supported you to know whether you have provided these opportunities, and that \ students are confident connected actively involved lifelong learners?
- Why was the assessment carried out that way?
- What uses were intended for the assessment information gathered? What uses were actually made of it?
- How effective have these approaches to measuring success been in preparing young people for their future?
Increasingly, educators, policy makers and governments are responding to a need to consider a broader set of goals that address, for example;
- academic achievement
- physical and mental health
- social-emotional development
- creativity and innovation
- citizenship and democracy
When thinking about what it means to measure success in terms of the investment we’re making in our young people think about:
- which of the areas above are your current approaches to measuring success addressing?
- what you could do in the coming year to develop learning opportunities that address those areas not identified, and what measures of success might you use to provide assurance that these things are being developed.
Consider the four dimensions of the chart in section one. Which of these four areas dominate the assessment thinking in your context? Why? What practical steps could you take to address the others?
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