What’s it about?
Simply put, virtual learning is access to education that doesn’t require attendance at a physical place called school or other learning institution. It utilises the affordances of online technologies to connect learners with the source of instruction and with each other, and can occur at any time, any place, and at any pace.
In their 2008 book, Disrupting Class: How Disrupting Innovation Will Change the Way the World Learns, Harvard business theorists Clayton Christensen, Michael Horn, and Curtis Johnson envision a future in which education is highly customised to each student’s learning style, relying heavily on special software and virtual courses. Their prediction that one-quarter of all high school courses (in the US) would be online by 2016 and one-half by 2019 was ambitious to say the least. However, the steady growth in virtual learning in the US and other countries seems to support the basic principle: by empowering students and parents, individualised virtual learning is one promising path to incrementally improving modern education.
Virtual learning courses offered on-site at regular schools — referred to in some contexts as “blended education” — are also an increasingly popular option, allowing learners to access specialist knowledge from wherever they are and whenever they need. The blended learning approach can also include the notion of ‘flipped learning’, where a student is engaged in the research and investigation elements of an inquiry outside of school, while using the opportunity in-school to work collaboratively in teams on projects.
A 2016 report from the World Economic Forum titled, “Is online learning the future of education?”, highlights this trend, focusing on the issue of access as a key driver for adoption of virtual learning, and recognising the ‘borderless’ nature of schools and education generally in our changing world.
What’s driving this?
There are three key drivers behind the escalation of virtual learning in our schools and education system.
Advances in technology
The reach and reliability of online services is now at a point where the dream of ubiquitous access is becoming a reality. In addition, the interactive and immersive dimensions of emerging online learning environments provide a richer and more engaging experience for learners.
Emphasis on learner agency and choice
The issues of an ever-widening curriculum, together with understandings about how learners learn, are increasingly challenging the structures of our traditional, face-to-face schooling system. Virtual learning approaches enable learners to exercise greater choice over what they learn, how they learn, when they learn, and who they learn with and from.
Supply and demand issues
Possibly the greatest challenge for education systems around the world is the crisis that exists because there are not being enough teachers available to fill subject-specific roles in traditional schools. While we require a subject matter expert to be physically present in every school to work with classes of students, this is unlikely to be resolved. Additionally, many areas of the world are facing levels of demand for education that exceed their ability to build schools and provide teachers in the traditional way. This is the case even in New Zealand, in places like Auckland!
What examples of this can I see?
While virtual education may not be the answer to all these issues, it is certainly going to be a part of the answer, incorporated into and alongside other forms of educational provision.
In New Zealand, like other parts of the world, students who are unable or unwilling to attend a conventional school have been catered for by distance education providers such as Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu (The Correspondence School). Increasingly, virtual learning approaches are being used here instead of the traditional print-based materials and occasional email exchange.
The Virtual Learning Network (VLN) Community has been active in New Zealand for over a decade, and has its roots going back into the early 1990s with the CASAtech, TOSItech and KAWM programmes, designed to cater for learners in rural and remote schools by enabling teachers in one school to work with cohorts of students from a variety of other schools.
Both these groups are likely to be taking advantage of the recently created provisions in the Education Act Update that legislates for the development of COOLs (Communities of Online Learning), opening opportunities for a wider range of providers and allowing learners greater choice regarding the subjects they want to take, and greater professional opportunities for teachers.
Further examples of the expansion of virtual learning can be seen in the widespread adoption of providers such as the Khan academy, that provides ‘mini-lessons’ in video format that can be viewed and reviewed by learners.
In the New Zealand context, LEARNZ has been offering virtual fieldtrips for students for nearly two decades, using online technologies to take students into experiences they would otherwise not be able to.
Consortia of universities such as Coursera and Udacity are now offering courses online – many of which are free or requiring payment only if you wish to have your work recognised for a credential.
On a more pragmatic level, collaborative online tools such as Google Docs and Office365 provide learners and teachers with opportunities for engagement in learning beyond the classroom.
How might we respond?
The critical thing to consider in our response to this trend is to see virtual learning not as a threat to traditional education, but as an opportunity to more completely and appropriately meet the needs of our modern learners. Some questions to act as a stimulus with your colleagues include:
- What use are your staff and students currently making of online tools and resources to support their teaching and learning? How might this be encouraged further and considered more ‘mainstream’ in terms of your school’s curriculum provision?
- How might your staff and students benefit from a coordinated use of an online learning environment — be that a LMS of some sort, or Google Classroom, or Microsoft Classroom? What benefits would this offer them?
- Are there areas of your current school curriculum that you struggle to meet? How might connecting to some form of virtual learning service benefit your students who might otherwise be denied that opportunity?
- How might your staff take advantage of virtual learning approaches to access the professional learning that they require or desire?
A blog post from Derek Wenmoth.
An article written by Jiyuan Yu and Zi Hu, which explores online learning and it's challenges.
Traditionally a teacher would teach subtraction or adjectives or the lifecycle of the butterfly in class and then children would use workbooks or assignments to do exercises on the topic. With flipping, students do the basic learning for homework and cover the applied learning and any problems in class. The theory is that there is less passive learning in class and more active and personalised learning.
This article from TeachThought outlines blended learning/flipped learning in action, and how hybrid classrooms are redefining education through defying conventions related to students work in and away from the classroom.
eLearning Industry's breakdown of cloud-based and open-source learning management systems.
These learning management services help schools, businesses, and organisations develop, assign, and track online classes.
This qualitative case study of the Cantatech and TOSItech audio-graphic distance learning projects provides description of when, why, and how both projects came into being. It also provides discussion of the issues and impacts connected to this particular use of information communications technology in rural New Zealand secondary schools.
KAWM encompassed a number of school improvement initiatives and aimed to: improve student achievement; improve school performance; strengthen school and community relationships; upgrade school ICT infrastructure; and improve teachers' professional capability through ICT.
CORE Education online programmes
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CORE professional learning solutions: Collaboration across sites of learning
Building a collaborative culture in and across your learning setting, with your community, represents a profound shift – from isolation and autonomy to de-privatised practice. We work with you, implementing structures and processes to support you as you build your collaborations and become a successful networked learning community.
CORE professional learning solutions: Collaboration
Collaboration transforms teaching and learning. Though a collaborative culture is not quickly established, it produces educationally powerful relationships with learners, their whānau, and teachers.
This resource describes the four pillars of flipped learning: flexible environment, learning culture, intentional content, and professional educator.