A list of digital technology related terms and their definitions


Algorithm - Hātepe

A process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem-solving operations, especially by a computer: precise, step-by-step plan for a computational procedure that begins with an input value and yields an output value in a finite number of steps.

Application - Taupānga

A computer program designed to perform a specific function – Web browsers and editing, drawing, and communication programs are commonly used applications. Computer applications or programs, for example Chrome Browser.

Authentic context - Ngā horopaki motuhēhē

A situation or example that is meaningful to the learner, one that the learner can identify with or relate to. Contexts that involve real-world problems.


Binary representation - Waehere tāhūrua

A language used to write instructions in a computer programme: A coding system using the binary digits 0 and 1 to represent a letter, digit, or other character in a computer or other electronic device.

Blog - Rangitaki

An online journal, often focussed on personal reflections.


Code, Coding - Waehere, Tuhiwaehere

In computer programming, code refers to the instructions in computer program.

Computational thinking for digital technologies - Whakaaro Rorohiko

Using an understanding of how technologies work to design programs or solutions to problems: Understanding the computer science principles that underlie all digital technologies and developing instructions, such as programming, to control these technologies.

Computer and human interactions - Tangata me te rorohiko

Focuses on the relationships between humans and computers. How humans intervene by designing and developing digital outcomes while also considering the role and responsibility of digital citizens.


People who use digital content

Control - Whakahaere

The ability to make decisions and act on them with regard to a digital system

Creators of digital content - Kaihanga ihirangi matihiko

People who create digital content, such as computer programs, games, and videos.

CS Unplugged - Tuikore CS

Computer Science activities for learning done without using computers/devices, or at least without having to program a computer.

Curriculum - Marautanga

What is considered important for students to learn in either a specific subject area or in general education.

Curriculum content - Ihirangi marau

The essential disciplinary knowledge and skills included in a curriculum.



An abbreviation for designing and developing digital outcomes.

Debugging - Patuiro

Identifying and removing errors from computer hardware or software.

Design and Visual Communication

In this area, students learn to apply design thinking. They develop an awareness of design by using visual communication to conceptualise and develop design ideas in response to a brief. (Technology learning area 2017, NZC)

Designing and Developing Digital Outcomes - Te Hoahoa me te Whanake i ngā Hua Matihiko

Students understand that digital applications and systems are created for humans by humans. They develop increasingly sophisticated understandings and skills for designing and producing quality, fit-for-purpose, digital outcomes. (Technology learning area 2017, NZC)

Designing and developing materials outcomes

In this area, students develop knowledge and skills that enable them to form, transform and work with resistant materials, textiles and fashion. (Technology learning area 2017, NZC)

Designing and developing processed outcomes

In this area, students develop knowledge of the materials and ingredients used to formulate food, chemical and biotechnological products. (Technology learning area 2017, NZC)

Digital citizen - Kirirarau matihiko

A person who uses information and communications technologies.

Digital outcome - Hua matihiko

A technological outcome is either a product or a system. A digital outcome is an outcome that can be represented in a digital format - usually a computer file. Common examples include digital images, videos, sound files and computer programs.

Digital Technologies - Hangarau Matihiko

Digital Technologies: The new digital technological areas in the Technology learning area – Computational thinking for digital technologies (CTDT) and Designing and Developing Digital Outcomes (DDDO) Hangarau Matihiko: Ko te kaupapa Hangarau Matihiko hou i roto i te Marautanga Hangarau – te Whakaaro Rorohiko, me te Hoahoa me te Whanake Putanga Matihiko.


e-Textiles - eMuka

Fabrics that have digital components embedded into them

Effectively implement - Whakatinana kia whaitake

To review, reflect, refine and develop existing curricula to incorporate new additional content

Electronic devices - Pūrere tāhiko

Electronics, the science of how to control electric energy in semiconductor. Electronic devices use silicon (transistors or chips) to transform inputs into outputs - this might extend from amplifying a signal in a radio, to auto-piloting a rocket.


ICT - Hangarau Mōhiohio, Tuku Mōhiohio

Information and Communications Technology is the integration of telecommunications and computer systems that enables people to interact in the digital world.

Input - Tāuru

The starting point of a system (product or action) where the source of energy, components or resources are applied. A place where, or a device through which, energy or information enters a system.


Nature of Technology - Te Āhua o te Hangarau

The 'WHY' big thinking strand of the learning area. This strand explores and questions the relationship between humans and technology both in the past and for future possibilities. Why technology influences society, and how society in turn influences the development of technological outcomes.


Online forum - Huinga ā-Tuihono

An online discussion site where people can hold conversations through posted messages

Outcome - Hua

A product or system that is created in response to a need. Learners develop capability in developing outcomes in the five Technological areas.

Output - Tāputa

The outcome of a digital system. The end result: the purpose or function it was designed for


Physical programming - Te papatonotanga tūturu

Programming for physically interactive environments or devices

Picaxe microcontroller - Pūmana whārahi picaxe

A type of microelectronics circuit board commonly used in education

Process - Tukanga

The 'hidden' aspect (sometimes called the 'black-box) of a system that is crucial part of systems understanding. The act of manipulating data in a digital system.

Progress Outcomes - Whakatupuranga

Significant learning steps that learners take to develop capability unique to themselves. Technology achievement objectives and progress outcomes provide indicators that support teacher judgements on progress and achievement in technology.


Robotics - Mātai karetao

The design, construction, operation, and use of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing


Self Review Tool - Utauta Tātari Whaiaro

Te Tokorima-a-Mahuika is a review tool to help you assess your digital readiness either as a group or as an individual. As a key part of Kia Takatū ā-Matihiko, the National Digital Readiness programme, you can gather feedback on how ‘ready’ you are to implement the new Digital Technologies and Hangarau Matihiko curriculum content

Social impacts - Pānga ā-pāpori

Effects on society

Sort, Sorting - Kōmaka

Placing elements of a list in a given order, usually numeric or lexicographical order. Sorting a list of numbers or words puts the list into order.

Spreadsheets - Ripakaute

An electronic document in which data can be arranged in the rows and columns of a grid and can be manipulated and used in calculations.


Technological areas - Ngā wāhanga ako Hangarau

There are five technological areas within the Technology learning area of the New Zealand Curriculum. These provide the specialist contexts for learning in technology.

Technological Knowledge - Te Mōhiotanga Hangarau

The 'WHAT' of Technology. This strand contains the knowledge/capabilities required for learners to have so they can create outcomes. It is about technological enterprises and environments and in relation to how and why things work. Students learn how functional modelling is used to evaluate design ideas and how prototyping is used to evaluate the fitness for purpose of outcomes (systems and products).

Technological Practice - Whakaharatau Hangarau

The 'HOW' of Technology. This strand contains the 'creative, doing and thinking' of the technology learning area. An iterative, design thinking process supports learners' understanding of how outcomes are designed, created, refined and bought into a functioning prototype. Students undertake their own projects while developing their understanding.

Technology - Hangarau

The application of scientific knowledge to create tools to extend our abilities and solve problems: Technology includes the tools we use in our everyday lives at home and at work. Pencils and paper are technological products as are vacuum cleaners, front-end loaders, and space shuttles.

Technology learning area - Wāhanga ako hangarau

One of eight essential learning areas in the New Zealand Curriculum

Technology strands - Ngā aho hangarau

The Technology learning area has three inter-related strands – technological practice (the 'how' to create/innovate), technological knowledge (the 'what'), and the nature of technology (the 'why' around humans and their relationship with Technology and their environment).


Word processing - Tukatuka kupu

Software that allows users to create, edit, and print documents electronically.